These long-term impacts are the issues that planners are now confronting. Introduction Since 9/11, many security measures have been applied on an ad hoc basis, without regard for their impacts on development patterns and community character. APA and its chapters support new initiatives in the development of a wide range of professional development resources regarding security through APA publications, sponsored research, and support for conferences and symposia focused on security. From a risk management perspective, it's important to make a conscious decision about whether you'll be an independent contractor or an employee. Four major principles in the course of risk management … In this assignment, you will apply the risk management techniques you have learned to a real-life scenario. The challenge to APA and its chapters is to address security concerns while maintaining the elements that preserve and enhance great communities. Reasons to Support actively address the causes and reduce the threats and the risks to our security; support and facilitate our communities' responses to such security challenges when they do materialize; facilitate the participation of all stakeholders and agencies to minimize security-related risks while not sacrificing the special physical, design, and historical character of American cities and communities; maintain a balance between security and personal freedom that enhances the quality of life. The Department of Defense (DoD) has published Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 4-010-01 (version 8 October 2003), entitled "Minimum Antiterrorism (AT) Standards for Buildings." (2014). It is the only practical strategy for dealing with the existing built environment. 205 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1200 Its main objective is to contribute to the sustainability of risk adjusted returns through implementation of an efficient risk management system. A Legal Compliance Guide for Volunteers and Employees of Trade and Professional Associations, Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives. The research should document interactions relative to first response as well as to subsequent mitigation achieved through planning. The second layer of defense includes the space and natural and physical barriers that can be introduced in the building yard to protect a particular building, typically the area between the building and the sidewalk. OPSEC is " a process used to deny to potential adversaries information about capabilities and/or intentions by identifying, controlling and protecting evidence of the planning and executing of sensitive activities. Risks are potentialities, and in a project management … It takes into account the value of an asset, the threats or hazards that potentially impact the asset, and the vulnerability of the asset to the threat or hazard. For example, large standoff distances are typically impossible to meet in city centers; therefore, an entity can either accept additional risk or relocate to an outlying area. But in countries where terrorism is more prevalent, the targets are often places that are not owned or used by a government, such as restaurants, clubs, and other types of entertainment facilities. Both CPTED and SafeScape are within the framework of New Urbanism design principles that are intended to facilitate integrated and fully functioning communities. Research and education are two of the most important components of any coordinated management plan. If planners had been involved earlier in decision-making processes, there would likely have been more opportunities to employ proven planning strategies as effective security measures. … It is the policy of APA and its chapters that all geospatial information remains in the public record, with exceptions provided for specific data attributes that are traditionally kept confidential, such as the number of employees in a building or at a site. Security solutions should be applied at an appropriate scale, e.g. But if a building, place, or system is unsafe, it makes more sense to fix the problem than to attempt to restrict access to information about the problem. American Professional Agency has been insuring psychologists since 1976. These standards are preferable to more prescriptive standards, which rely on minimum standoff distances as the "primary strategy" for the protection of buildings and facilities. Designing for Security in the Nation's Capital. Typically, planners are presented with a set of criteria and are then asked to meet those criteria in the context of the area in which a building or facility is to be located. While terrorism in the United States has led to heightened concerns over security, the security threats posed by crimes and natural disasters are much more frequent and widespread. The primary physical-based standards were developed by the Department of State (DoS), the Interagency Security Committee (ISC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Planners need to be leaders in these discussions. The APA provide a high quality insurance program that represents great value for members. APA and its chapters support security and emergency management planning that is integrated with overall community development objectives, in order to achieve a balanced approach. In addition to guidance on the implementation of DMA 2000, FEMA has also issued a series of publications in its Risk Management Series (RMS). To this end, APA and its chapters shall: Reasons to Support Legal Issues For All Volunteers and Employees, III. Rather than be a stand-alone element, objectives and policies should be integrated into the various elements addressing land use, transportation, infrastructure or others, as appropriate. It also included a recommendation to create the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) as a permanent body to develop long-term construction standards for locations requiring blast resistance or other specialized security measures, as well as to address continuing government-wide security issues. For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories, Legal Risk Management for Associations is intended to assist volunteers and employees who have positions of responsibility and authority for trade or professional associations in. In city centers or other urbanized areas, there may not be a building yard and the second and third layers of defense are one and the same. A risk is anything that could potentially impact your project’s timeline, performance or budget. The American Planning Association (APA) and its chapters affirm that it is imperative for planners, working in concert with first responders and other allied professionals, to: At all levels of government, planners have long been involved in decisions that affect land use relationships along with decisions that affect the design and operation of civic space, utility networks, transportation systems, and other public facilities. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are defined as systems that are developed for the compilation, storage, and depiction of data through the medium of digital maps. Otherwise, focusing only on security will likely cause security to trump other worthy community development objectives, and may be in conflict with APA's policy to support smart growth. A policy guide on security is needed now, to help define the role of planners in security matters, and to ensure that planners are able to influence and participate in government policies and legislative decisions that involve security. The National Capital Urban Design and Security Plan, published by the National Capital Planning Commission for Washington DC, is recognized as a prototype for the incorporation of security principles into the comprehensive planning process. The ISC has prepared three guiding documents that contain physical security, design, and construction criteria for new, renovated, or leased federal buildings: 1) New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernization Project, 2) Minimum Standards for Federal Building Access Procedures, and 3) Security Standards for Leased Spaces. The public interest would be better served by planners who are better educated in security matters, as well as by enhanced, more stable, and better informed working relationships between planners and first responders. These documents are performance-based and should be applied as such. Additionally, Executive Order 13228, Establishing the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council (October 8, 2001), describes the associated functions as "detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.". At present, larger planning strategies are not typically considered in the decision-making process, but are a reaction to, or consequence of, physical or design-based solutions. APA and its chapters will remain vigilant in defense of the public's right to fully participate in decisions affecting the fabric of their communities. In-text: (6 steps to risk management, work safe act 2012, 2015) Your Bibliography: 6 steps to risk management, work safe act 2012, 2015. . The Risk Management Policy shall provide for the enhancement and protection of business value from uncertainties and consequent losses 3. (Tribal plans can be developed to meet either state or local requirements.) Current mechanisms are inadequate for the task and are subject to political abuses. APA and its chapters affirm that the protection of civil liberties and personal freedoms must be upheld. Planners — and our fellow professional organizations that care about physical design and community building — need to articulate the difficult choices between perimeter security, mobility, accessibility, good design, and quality of life in our communities. Terrorism can take many forms, including hijackings, biological attacks, and hostage executions; however, bombing (pipe bombs to large container explosives) are the most prevalent form of terrorism because delivery of the threat is relatively easy to execute. With respect to the policies that are included in this guide, the essential pieces of federal security legislation include: The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (Pub. It is important to view security in a broader context, and the implications of its application unilaterally within society. APA and its chapters endorse additional federal support for the development of coordinated and accessible GIS and related data and applications, recognizing the federal government's current role as the most important source of geographic and remote sensing data. Pursuant to the amended state law, the City of Greensboro enacted its own Infrastructure Information Security Policy, with an effective date of July 1, 2004. Applied to buildings: The first layer of defense is defined as the surrounding area, including installations, infrastructure, and other buildings outside the perimeter of the site. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Threat and vulnerability assessments will be flawed if they do not incorporate basic planning principles. I. Risk management is an arm of project management that deals with managing potential impacts to your project, both positive and negative. APA and its chapters support the establishment of federal building location standards that are consistent with existing federal policies that encourage placement of federal facilities in urban locales and near transit. If, and only if, relevant procedural guidelines have been officially enacted by his or her employer pursuant to established applicable due process requirements, APA and its chapters encourage public sector professional planners to systematically document requests for critical infrastructure information. This experience and these skills can also be used to ensure best practices in security planning. Planning for security should also involve planning for energy resources and systems. 2001. APA and its chapters support specific research on interactions of local planners with police, fire, and emergency medical staff relative to security policy and plan-making processes. Planners, architects, developers and building owners must work together to take security measures into consideration in the planning, design, and permitting process. On a daily basis, planners interact with and release to the public, information that is potentially useful to terrorists. EO-12372 further requires that federal agencies shall "communicate with state and local elected officials as early in the program planning cycle as is reasonably feasible to explain specific plans and actions.". (Source: OPSEC Professionals Society) Anyone dealing with sensitive information should understand the ease with which it can leak from an individual or an organization. Those who developed and implemented these measures should be commended for their efforts. . APA and its chapters support the planning and implementation of vehicular and pedestrian evacuation routes balanced with community objectives as an element of comprehensive security plans involving the location and orientation of buildings and public spaces. The APA Member Insurance Program offers a wide range of benefits to meet your professional needs and protect your hard-earned reputation, including: $20,000,000 limit of indemnity per claim for Professional Indemnity, Public and … In addition, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) contains several statutory disclosure exemptions that, while they do not inherently comprise categories of sensitive information, provide useful insight into the types of information that may be considered sensitive. Utah, where state law protects records the disclosure of which would jeopardize the life or safety of an individual or would jeopardize the security of governmental property, governmental programs, or governmental recordkeeping systems from damage, theft, or other appropriation or use contrary to law or public policy. Other forthcoming design guides will address the protection of public buildings from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and high winds. The criteria consider security in all building systems and elements." The Department of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) family of documents "provide planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and apply to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities ... Headquarters, United States Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) are responsible for administration of the UFC system." These departments include the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. He has been in … New strategies continue to be identified, studied, developed and tested for potential effectiveness. Your essay should also outline qualitative and quantitative measures of risk and discuss how cultures, structures, and process impact the risk management process. Managing Risk in Everyday Practice – Guidance for Managers, 2017 HSE Integrated Risk Management Policy 5 2. Comprehensive plans should address security once there is a thorough understanding of a community's greatest vulnerability, the acceptance of certain levels of risk and the purpose of securing a particular space, building, or precinct. I. In 1995, the Department of Justice issued a report entitled Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities. Alaska and Utah have enacted similar legislation. If they are too rigidly applied, or if they are applied outside of the context of an overall facility master plan, prescriptive standards, including recently enacted DoD standards, may have the potential for forcing unintended dispersion, sprawl, or land consumption, and they may conflict with existing federal policies that encourage the location of federal facilities in center cities and urban districts (e.g. They look forward to achieving a huge customer base that consequently results in high profitability (Cohen et.al, 2013). Reasons to Support PDD-63 established the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) at the FBI, to serve as the U.S. government's focal point for threat assessment, warning, investigation, and response for threats or attacks against critical infrastructures (source: National Academies Press). Another resource that can help in determining whether to withhold information is the Federal Geographic Data Consortium's, Alaska, where state law exempts from disclosure "records or information pertaining to a plan, program, or procedures for establishing, maintaining, or restoring security in the state, or to a detailed description or evaluation of systems, facilities, or infrastructure in the state, but only to the extent that the production of the records or information (A) could reasonably be expected to interfere with the implementation or enforcement of the security plan, program, or procedures; (B) would disclose confidential guidelines for investigations or enforcement and the disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law; or (C) could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of an individual or to present a real and substantial risk to the public health and welfare.". Planners should contact their local law enforcement agencies to see what training opportunities are already available at the local level. Standards applicable to homeland security include: At the operational level, several sources exist for security planning guidance. Sound planning and mitigation is the most cost effective approach to achieve a given level of security. The legislative foundations of what is now homeland security in the United States date back to the beginning of the Cold War. Promote good road design, street connectivity, and the use of streetscape elements in the public realm as part of an overall community security plan. Please ensure you cite in APA format, any sources you have used in your posting. Reasons to Support SafeScape: Creating Safer, More Livable Communities Through Planning and Design. The aim of risk management is to maximise opportunities in all [organisation] activities and to minimise adversity. Planners can also think about how long-term planning concepts can make first responses more effective. APA and its chapters also support the adoption of state and local policies and procedures that will facilitate the sharing of geospatial data, along with GIS and GPS-related technological expertise, among planners and first responders for security purposes. Furthermore, jurisdictions are encouraged to develop and implement a formal policy on the designation, handling, and storage of sensitive information. Due diligence in the acquisition of existing structures also requires consideration of physical security factors. Understandably, the standards and operational procedures that have been developed to date are in response to the most significant terrorist events. Accomplishing their association's goals and objectives effectively and with increased confidence that legal problems will not interfere. FEMA Publication 386-7, 6 CFR Part 29, which designates information on vulnerability of critical infrastructures "Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII)" and protects it from disclosure using Freedom of Information Act exemption 3 (source: Department of Homeland Security), 18 CFR Part 388, which designates as Critical Energy Infrastructure Information (CEII) "information concerning proposed or existing critical infrastructure (physical or virtual) that: relates to the production, generation, transportation, transmission, or distribution of energy; could be useful to a person in planning an attack on critical infrastructure; is exempt from mandatory disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. Examples from New York City as it plans new transit facilities in Lower Manhattan and elsewhere should be examined for the use of new techniques and alternatives. 2. They include not only transportation, public health and safety services, but also counseling, public information and referral, essential contractors, and vendors that provide public services. A summary of legislation, regulations, and standards affecting homeland security is attached to this policy guide as an appendix. While the concept of layers of defense, as used in FEMA #430, does not extend into the interior of a building, there are nevertheless very effective risk management strategies that can and should be employed within the interior of a building. Access risk management courses for your profession by clicking here. Local planners should also become more involved at the federal level. Too much emphasis on any one of these hazards can lead to a misallocation of resources and the degradation of both the built and natural environments. As planners, we believe that security can be combined with good practical design, and that many of these piecemeal solutions can be modified to be more comprehensive and context sensitive. Legal Issues in Professional Practice Programs, IV. As current and complete information on the natural and built environment is critical to the effectiveness of planning, it is the policy of APA and its chapters that the planning community should participate in confidentiality determinations and the classification of critical infrastructure information. jersey barriers, expanded perimeters, street closings, etc.) Resources and updates on risk management in psychotherapy and counseling, part of an online course for CE credits (CEU's) for psychologists, social workers, LCSWs, MFTs, counselors and nurses. ", Assets are tangible and intangible resources, and Asset Value can be described as "the degree of debilitating impact that would be caused by the incapacity or destruction of an asset.". It outlines how risk management activities will be performed, recorded, … Great communities must be safe and secure, with social equity, viable economies, cultural vitality and social diversity. Each course also qualifies for one-hour credit towards the three hours required to receive a risk management discount of 5% off your professional liability policy*. Reasons to Support Each layer is the demarcation point for a different set of potential security strategies. Planning, land use, and design decisions can play a major integrative and facilitative role in achieving these results. With the exception of the horrific events of the Oklahoma City bombing and the World Trade Center, terrorism aimed at Americans has been primarily directed at military or diplomatic mission facilities overseas. The first challenge related to information sensitivity is the need to determine exactly what information should be considered sensitive. COVID-19 resources for psychologists, health-care workers and the public. Reasons to support National Capital Planning Commission. For Psychiatrists: Access Allied World’s Risk Management courses for Psychiatrists by clickinghere. It is equally important that basic planning concepts (e.g. DMA 2000 deals primarily with natural disasters, but its principles can easily be extended to include manmade hazards involving system failures and homeland security. At the Federal level, these are embodied in the Code of Federal Regulations. Additional public funding is required in order to achieve more effective coordination among planners, design professionals, and first responders. AF Policy Direction 90-9, 1 April 2000 This directive establishes the Air Force Operational Risk Management (ORM) Program. Overview of the Risk Management Process The HSE’s approach to risk management is aligned to the ISO 31000 an overview of which is provided at IPH’s approach in assessing and managing other specialised risk management programmes should reflect the requirements of this Risk Management Policy. Question 1. Mr. Ashford is a caseworker at the County Human Services Department. This policy is needed in order to ensure that there is a reasonable balance between planning for crime prevention and planning to mitigate acts of terrorism. The short-term impacts of these measures were easily justifiable in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. C) Documentation of Requests for Critical Infrastructure Information. Reasons to Support Calhoun Young, Rufus, and Dwight H. Merriam. In furtherance of the objectives of our profession, APA needs to line up in support of the development and application of these measures. . However, following the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, security began receiving significantly greater attention from federal civilian facilities managers as well. An important role for planners is to look at security solutions comprehensively. Violations of the law, whether intentional or unintentional, can have severe consequences for the association and for the individuals involved. Key pieces of legislation include the following: In addition to Congressional action, numerous Executive directives and orders have been promulgated that have shaped the many aspects of what is now collectively referred to as homeland security. In specific instances where a significant threat to homeland security has been clearly established, and in order to minimize threats to homeland security, APA and its chapters support the enactment of state and local legislation and regulations that may protect access to and disclosure of critical data (including geospatial data) and public documents. On the other hand, comprehensive plans and building codes will be deficient if they do not account for the findings derived from threat and vulnerability assessments. In response to terrorist attacks on our citizens and military in the past 15 years, counterterrorism security has become a predominant part of our everyday lives, especially in the nation's capital and in large cities such as New York. Other authorities restrict the use of the term "security" to refer only to hazards associated with terrorism and common crime. For example, the North Carolina Public Records Law was amended in January 2002. © 2020 American Psychological Association, Protecting their association's future, and. As stated in Designing for Security in the Nation's Capital, a report prepared by the Interagency Task Force of the National Capital Planning Commission, "These installations communicate fear and retrenchment and undermine the basic premise that underlies a democratic society." The solutions to these issues are programmatic as well as physical. The risk mitigation measures adopted by the company … Nevenka has been with APA Group since February 2008, during which time she has held the roles of General … In the development of security plans and plans for safe growth and safe communities, APA and its chapters advocate security policies and guidance that focus on: (1) performance rather than prescriptive standards that address physical, operational, and other approaches, and that are context-appropriate; (2) balancing security and overall community development objectives; (3) responses that reflect different scales: site, neighborhood, community, and region; (4) strategies that develop and incorporate community-based risk assessments in addition to specific assessments; and (5) incorporating new information about new security threats and new technology and security solutions. Past planning efforts have led to the development of such concepts as defensible spaces, eyes on the street, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) and the book SafeScape: Creating Safer, More Livable Communities Through Planning and Design. Finally, the need for Operations Security (OPSEC) is not limited to those who work with classified information. The integration of risk and vulnerability assessments and mitigation techniques into the planning process also ensures the safest possible overall environment within a community. 622 March-April 2003, p. 36). Further, APA and its chapters advocate the development of security provisions that enable communities to implement smart growth strategies and transit oriented development without undue design constraints. A practical introduction to security and risk Risk management or security solutions range from intelligence gathering, policing, operational procedures and site selection and design (building to landscape or streetscape design) to larger planning-based solutions such as transportation and land-use management. We tend to favor the wide perspective and the long view of time. Terrorism is defined in the Code of Federal Regulations as "the unlawful use of force and/or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." Rep. Harold Rogers, the chairman of the subcommittee, responded, "Whether you are from rural or urban areas, we want the money distributed based on an objective assessment of the risk and the threat." Subject to individual state freedom of information and privacy laws, a typical list of information pertaining to such a request might include: Reasons to Support Mitigation is used in this policy guide to refer to measures intended to prevent threats to security, or to minimize the potential or actual impacts of a natural or man made disaster. APA and its chapters endorse the adoption of a security planning process for public facilities that provides a comprehensive focus on prevention, protection, response, and recovery/continuity beyond traditional plans. (Source: National Strategy for Homeland Security, White House Office of Homeland Security, July 2002.) Adopted by the Legislative and Policy Committee, January 13, 2005 Adopted by the Chapter Delegate Assembly March 19, 2005 Ratified by the Board of Directors March 20, 2005. The given need for the mitigation of attacks against infrastructure systems or reduced threats on ``... 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